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    Carbonate chemistry and light data from bottle samples
    
  
  
    
    

Carbonate chemistry and light data from bottle samples

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/719535
Data Type: Other Field Results
Version:
Version Date: 2017-11-17

Project
» BErmuda ocean Acidification and COral reef iNvestigation (BEACON)

Program
» Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Andersson, AndreasUniversity of California-San Diego (UCSD-SIO)Principal Investigator, Contact
Bates, NicholasBermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS)Co-Principal Investigator
York, Amber D.Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager


Coverage

Spatial Extent: N:32.457333 E:-64.797469 S:32.400777 W:-64.834759

Dataset Description

Surface seawater samples were collected approximately monthly and analyzed for carbonate chemistry and nutrients. 

These data were utilized in the following publication:

Courtney, T. A., Lebrato, M., Bates, N. R., Collins, A., de Putron, S. J., Garley, R., ... & Andersson, A. J. (2017). Environmental controls on modern scleractinian coral and reef-scale calcification. Science advances3(11), e1701356. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1701356


Acquisition Description

At each sample site, a 5 liter Niskin bottle was deployed at 0.5-1.0 m depth according to best practices. Samples for DIC and TA were collected in 200 mL Kimax glass sample bottles, and immediately fixed using 100 µL saturated solution of HgCl2. TA samples were analyzed via closed cell potentiometric titrations using a VINDTA 3S system and DIC was analyzed using coulometric methods on a VINDTA 3c or an infrared based analysis on an AIRICA system. Accuracy and precision of TA and DIC measurements were evaluated by certified reference materials provided by the laboratory of Prof. A. Dickson at Scripps Institution of Oceanography yielding typical precision and accuracy of ±1–2 µmol/kg. A YSI Handheld Multiparameter Instrument was used to measure in situ temperature (±0.15°C), salinity (±1%), dissolved oxygen (±2 %), and percent saturation dissolved oxygen (±2%). Nutrient samples were filtered upon sampling using a 0.4 µM filter and frozen in opaque plastic bottles until processing at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Nutrient Analytical Facility using agency methods of analysis for ammonium (detection limit 0.034 µmol/L, method G-172-96), nitrite+nitrate (detection limit 0.010 µmol/L, method G-177-96), silicate (detection limit 0.016 µmol/L, method G-177-96), and phosphate (detection limit 0.025 µmol/L, method G-297-03).

Sampling locations: Bermuda Platform: Hog Reef (32.45733, -64.83476) and Crescent Reef (32.40078, -64.79747).


Processing Description

TAcorr and DICcorr represents instrument TA value and instrument DIC value calibrated as fixed offsets to certified reference material from the laboratory of A. Dickson at Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

BCO-DMO Data Manager Processing Notes:
* added a conventional header with dataset name, PI name, version date
* modified parameter names to conform with BCO-DMO naming conventions
* NaN values changed to nd for "no data"
* Added Lat,Lon for Hog and Cres reefs into the data


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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
DateDay of sampling in formay DD-MM-YY unitless
TimeTime of sampling in format HH:mm unitless
SiteSite name of coral in situ growth (Hog = Hog Reef, Bermuda or Cres = Crescent Reef, Bermuda) unitless
LatLatitude of site decimal degrees
LonLongitude of site decimal degrees
TempSea surface temperature degrees Celsius
Sal_YSISea surface salinity measured by YSI instrument parts per thousand (ppt)
Sal_SalinometerSea surface salinity by Autosal Salinometer Practical Salinity Units (PSU)
DO_mg_lSea surface dissolved oxygen milligrams per liter (mg/L)
DO_percentSea surface dissolved oxygen percent saturation (%)
uM_NH4Sea surface ammonium micromolar (µmol/L)
uM_SiO4Sea surface silicate micromolar (µmol/L)
uM_PO4Sea surface phosphate micromolar (µmol/L)
uM_NO2_NO3Sea surface nitrite + nitrate micromolar (µmol/L)
TAcorrSea surface total alkalinity (corrected value, see processing description) micromoles per liter per kilogram (µmol/kg)
DICcorrSea surface dissolved inorganic carbon (corrected value, see processing description) micromoles per liter per kilogram (µmol/kg)


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Niskin Bottle
Generic Instrument Name
Niskin bottle
Dataset-specific Description
From 2007 to 2012, surface seawater samples from the Bermuda coral reef platform were collected once a month at 0.5–1-m depth using a 5-L Niskin bottle.
Generic Instrument Description
A Niskin bottle (a next generation water sampler based on the Nansen bottle) is a cylindrical, non-metallic water collection device with stoppers at both ends. The bottles can be attached individually on a hydrowire or deployed in 12, 24, or 36 bottle Rosette systems mounted on a frame and combined with a CTD. Niskin bottles are used to collect discrete water samples for a range of measurements including pigments, nutrients, plankton, etc.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Autosal Salinometer 8400B (Salinity)
Generic Instrument Name
Autosal salinometer
Dataset-specific Description
Samples for salinity were collected in glass bottles and later analyzed using an autosalinometer (Guildline Instruments)
Generic Instrument Description
The salinometer is an instrument for measuring the salinity of a water sample.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
YSI 556 Handheld Multiparameter Instrument
Generic Instrument Name
Water Quality Multiprobe
Dataset-specific Description
A YSI 556 Handheld Multiparameter Instrument was used to measure in situ temperature (accuracy ± 0.15°C), salinity (accuracy ± 1%), DO_mg (accuracy ± 2%), and DO_% (accuracy ± 2%).
Generic Instrument Description
An instrument which measures multiple water quality parameters based on the sensor configuration.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
MARIANDA VINDTA 3S
Generic Instrument Name
Automatic titrator
Dataset-specific Description
Total alkalinity (TA) samples were analyzed via closed cell potentiometric titrations using a VINDTA 3S system. VINDTA (Versatile INstrument for the Determination of Titration Alkalinity). The system uses a Metrohm Titrino 719S, an ORION-Ross pH electrode and a Metrohm reference electrode. The burette, the pipette and the analysis cell have a water jacket around them. Precision is typically +/- 1 umol/kg for TA. Please see for a complete instrument description.
Generic Instrument Description
Instruments that incrementally add quantified aliquots of a reagent to a sample until the end-point of a chemical reaction is reached.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
VINDTA 3c (Marianda Inc.)
Generic Instrument Name
MARIANDA VINDTA 3C total inorganic carbon and titration alkalinity analyser
Dataset-specific Description
DIC was analyzed using coulometric methods on a VINDTA 3c or an infrared-based analysis on an AIRICA system. The Versatile INstrument for the Determination of Total inorganic carbon and titration Alkalinity (VINDTA) 3C is a laboratory alkalinity titration system combined with an extraction unit for coulometric determination of total dissolved inorganic carbon. The instrument analyzes alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon content of a sample in parallel. The sample transport is performed with peristaltic pumps and acid is added to the sample using a membrane pump. No pressurizing system is required and only one gas supply (nitrogen or dry and CO2-free air) is necessary. The system uses a Metrohm Titrino 719S, an ORION-Ross pH electrode and a Metrohm reference electrode. The burette, the pipette and the analysis cell have a water jacket around them. Precision is typically ±1 µmol/kg for TA. DIC is analyzed with a UIC coulometer. Please see  for a complete instrument description.
Generic Instrument Description
The Versatile INstrument for the Determination of Total inorganic carbon and titration Alkalinity (VINDTA) 3C is a laboratory alkalinity titration system combined with an extraction unit for coulometric titration, which simultaneously determines the alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon content of a sample. The sample transport is performed with peristaltic pumps and acid is added to the sample using a membrane pump. No pressurizing system is required and only one gas supply (nitrogen or dry and CO2-free air) is necessary. The system uses a Metrohm Titrino 719S, an ORION-Ross pH electrode and a Metrohm reference electrode. The burette, the pipette and the analysis cell have a water jacket around them. Precision is typically +/- 1 umol/kg for TA and/or DIC in open ocean water.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
AIRICA (Marianda Inc.)
Generic Instrument Name
Inorganic Carbon Analyzer
Dataset-specific Description
The Automated Infra Red Inorganic Carbon Analyzer (AIRICA) utilizes infrared detection of CO2 gas purged from an acidified seawater sample. A high-precision syringe pump extracts the seawater sample, acidifies the sample with phosphoric acid, and analyzes the gas released with an infrared light analyzer (LICOR). The CO2 signal is integrated for each sample to quantify the total inorganic carbon for a given aliquot of seawater analyzed. Three aliquots and peak integrations are performed for each seawater sample and averaged to determine the dissolved inorganic carbon for each sample. Precision was typically ±1–2 µmol/kg for TA. Please see http://marianda.com/index.php?site=products&subsite=airica for a complete instrument description.
Generic Instrument Description
Instruments measuring carbonate in sediments and inorganic carbon (including DIC) in the water column.


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Deployments

BIOS_BEACON

Website
Platform
BIOS_Small_Boat
Start Date
2007-06-15
End Date
2012-09-18
Description
Sample collection platforms for the BEACON Project. The samples were collected from a small boat (27 ft Twin Vee or 26 ft Seadance)


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Project Information

BErmuda ocean Acidification and COral reef iNvestigation (BEACON)


Coverage: Bermuda


NSF abstract:

Ocean acidification owing to anthropogenic emission of CO2 is a significant and imminent threat to marine calcifying organisms and ecosystems such as corals and coral reefs. As a result of future ocean acidification, i.e., increasing seawater CO2, and decreasing pH, carbonate ion concentration [CO3], and carbonate saturation state, it is likely that marine calcifiers will have difficulty growing their shells and skeletons of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) at their present rates. Dissolution of carbonate sediments and structures are also likely to increase, and could ultimately exceed calcification and CaCO3 production, leading to a transition from net accumulation to a net loss in carbonate material of individual coral colonies, coral communities and coral reef ecosystems. Because of Bermuda's relatively high-latitude location (32° N), the annual average surface seawater [CO3] is lower in Bermuda than regions closer to the tropics. As a consequence, the Bermuda coral reef is likely to experience critical [CO3] values and net dissolution before its tropical counterparts as a result of continued ocean acidification. Furthermore, a natural gradient in [CO3] exists along the Bermuda reef with environmental parameters such as, light, temperature, and nutrients being near identical. This gradient allows for unique cross-comparisons of calcification of individual calcifiers and calcifying communities under different [CO3] in a natural environment. 

In this study, researchers at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Science (BIOS) will launch the BEACON project to further our understanding of the consequences of ocean acidification to the process of calcification and CaCO3 production at three different spatial scales including (1) individual coral colonies, (2) local reef communities, and (3) regional coral reef ecosystems. They will conduct (1) in situ and in vitro experiments to assess growth and evaluate net calcification of individual coral colonies of three different species common to Bermuda and the Caribbean exposed to different [CO3] under both natural and controlled experimental conditions; (2) diel and quasi-lagrangian calcification experiments to evaluate net calcification of local reef communities and in moving water masses along the natural [CO3] gradient existent on the Bermuda platform; and (3) time series data collected across the Bermuda platform and offshore, to evaluate net calcification and CaCO3 production of the Bermuda coral reef ecosystem and platform over seasonal and annual cycles. 

Broader impacts: This project will provide fundamental data on the consequences of ocean acidification to coral reefs on different temporal and spatial scales. Combined, knowledge at each of the scales will contribute to an improved understanding of this problem in a broader context, i.e., the effect on coral reefs as a global entity and role in the global carbon cycle during past, present and future seawater chemical conditions. As the meaning implies, the research team envisions BEACON to serve as a guiding light to assist researchers and policymakers in framing future strategies and making decisions regarding the management of coral reefs and CO2 emission policies in order to establish CO2 stabilization targets. Scientific understanding and research products from the project will be specifically used in the BIOS explorer program, CoE POGO ocean acidification module, and the coral reef ecology class taught at BIOS. It will also contribute to developing the research and technical skills of one graduate student and one research technician at BIOS, and will include the involvement of interns and NSF REU fellowship students each year of the project.

Based on the findings of the BEACON project, and especially the results published in Andersson et al. (Nature Climate Change, 4, 56-61, 2014) and Yeakel et al. (PNAS, 112, 14512-14517, 2015), BEACON II (https://www.bco-dmo.org/project/737955) aims to assess the links between offshore and reef biogeochemistry by continuing and expanding on the physical and chemical measurements on the Bermuda coral reef and in the surrounding Sargasso Sea.



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Program Information

Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)


Coverage: Global


The Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program focuses on the ocean's role as a component of the global Earth system, bringing together research in geochemistry, ocean physics, and ecology that inform on and advance our understanding of ocean biogeochemistry. The overall program goals are to promote, plan, and coordinate collaborative, multidisciplinary research opportunities within the U.S. research community and with international partners. Important OCB-related activities currently include: the Ocean Carbon and Climate Change (OCCC) and the North American Carbon Program (NACP); U.S. contributions to IMBER, SOLAS, CARBOOCEAN; and numerous U.S. single-investigator and medium-size research projects funded by U.S. federal agencies including NASA, NOAA, and NSF.

The scientific mission of OCB is to study the evolving role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle, in the face of environmental variability and change through studies of marine biogeochemical cycles and associated ecosystems.

The overarching OCB science themes include improved understanding and prediction of: 1) oceanic uptake and release of atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases and 2) environmental sensitivities of biogeochemical cycles, marine ecosystems, and interactions between the two.

The OCB Research Priorities (updated January 2012) include: ocean acidification; terrestrial/coastal carbon fluxes and exchanges; climate sensitivities of and change in ecosystem structure and associated impacts on biogeochemical cycles; mesopelagic ecological and biogeochemical interactions; benthic-pelagic feedbacks on biogeochemical cycles; ocean carbon uptake and storage; and expanding low-oxygen conditions in the coastal and open oceans.



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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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This document is created by info v 4.1f 5 Oct 2018 from the content of the BCO-DMO metadata database.    2022-01-27  08:55:45