|Muller-Karger, Frank||University of South Florida (USF)||Lead Principal Investigator, Principal Investigator|
|Astor, Yrene||Estacion de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita (EDIMAR-FLASA)||Co-Principal Investigator|
|Benitez-Nelson, Claudia||University of South Carolina||Co-Principal Investigator|
|Scranton, Mary I.||Stony Brook University - MSRC (SUNY-SB MSRC)||Co-Principal Investigator|
|Taylor, Gordon T.||Stony Brook University - MSRC (SUNY-SB MSRC)||Co-Principal Investigator|
|Thunell, Robert C.||University of South Carolina||Co-Principal Investigator|
|Varela, Ramon||Estacion de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita (EDIMAR-FLASA)||Co-Principal Investigator|
|Capelo, Juan||Estacion de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita (EDIMAR-FLASA)||Scientist|
|Guzman, Laurencia||Estacion de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita (EDIMAR-FLASA)||Scientist|
|Lorenzoni, Laura||University of South Florida (USF)||Scientist, Contact, Data Manager|
|Montes, Enrique||University of South Florida (USF)||Scientist|
|Rojas, Jaimie||Estacion de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita (EDIMAR-FLASA)||Scientist|
|Rueda-Roa, Digna||University of South Florida (USF)||Scientist, Contact, Data Manager|
|Narvaez, Jesus||Estacion de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita (EDIMAR-FLASA)||Technician|
|Rosales, Alberto||Estacion de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita (EDIMAR-FLASA)||Technician|
|Tappa, Eric||University of South Carolina||Technician|
|Biddle, Mathew||Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)||BCO-DMO Data Manager|
|McKee, Theresa||Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)||BCO-DMO Data Manager|
The CARIACO Ocean Time-Series Program (formerly known as CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean) started on November 1995 (CAR-001) and ended on January 2017 (CAR-232). Monthly cruises were conducted to the CARIACO station (10.50° N, 64.67° W) onboard the R/V Hermano Ginés of the Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales de Venezuela. During each cruise, a minimum of four hydrocasts were performed to collect a suite of core monthly observations. We conducted separate shallow and deep casts to obtain a better vertical resolution of in-situ Niskin-bottles samples for chemical observations, and for productivity, phytoplankton, and pigment observations. One CTD composite profile was created for each cruise by stitching together the sections of the different cruise's CTD profiles at the depth interval where water samples were obtained. CTD’s Salinity, Oxygen, and Fluorescence where calibrated with in-situ measurements. The composite CTD profiles dataset is a complement of the hydrographic time series data obtained with the Niskin Bottle Samples (https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3093). The following sections describe the methods used in collecting the core observations at the CARIACO station.
Methodology published at CARIACO site (http://imars.usf.edu/publications/methods-cariaco)
CARIACO Field Program general description (http://www.imars.usf.edu/cariaco)
Additional funding support provided by:
Fondo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Investigación, FONACIT (2000001702 and 2011000353), Venezuela.
Ley Orgánica de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, LOCTI (Estación de Investigaciones Marinas, 23914), Venezuela.
Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research, IAI (IAI-CRN3094).
Hydrocasts: CTD and Rosette Sample
During each cruise, a minimum of four hydrocasts were performed to collect a suite of core monthly observations. Additional hydrocasts were performed for specific process studies. We conducted separate shallow and deep casts to obtain better vertical resolution for chemical observations, and for productivity and pigment observations. Water was collected with a SeaBird rosette equipped with 12 (8 liter) teflon-coated Niskin bottles (bottle springs were also teflon-coated) at 20 depths between the surface and 1310 m. The rosette housed the CTD, which collected continuous profiles of temperature and salinity. The CTD also had a SBE-43 oxygen probe, a Wetlabs ECO fluorometer outfitted for chlorophyll-a estimates, and a C-Star transmissometer (660 nm, Wetlabs). Beam attenuation measurements were added to the time series on its 11th cruise (November 1986) originally using a SeaTech transmissometer. The rosette was controlled with a SeaBird deck unit via conducting cable, but alternatively it had been actuated automatically based on pressure recordings via an Autofire Module (SBE AFM) when breaks in cable conductivity had occurred.
Between November 1995 and September 1996, three separate SBE-19 CTDs were used in repeated casts until a reliable salinity profile was obtained below the oxycline. The SBE-19 model CTDs frequently failed to provide reliable conductivity values below the oxycline in the Cariaco Basin. Starting in September 1996, the SBE-19 CTDs were replaced by SBE-25 CTDs, which provided extremely accurate and reliable data in anoxic waters.
All CTDs were calibrated at the Sea-Bird factory once per year. The accuracy of the pressure sensor was 3.5 m and had a resolution of 0.7 m. The temperatures accuracy was 0.002°C with a resolution of 0.0003°C. The conductivity accuracy was 0.003 mmho/cm with a resolution of 0.0004 mmho/cm.
Continuous salinity profiles were calculated from the CTD measurements. Discrete salinity samples were analyzed using a Guildline Portasal 8410 salinometer standardized with IAPSO Standard Seawater, with a precision of better than ± 0.003 and a resolution of 0.0003 mS/cm at 15° C and 35 psu, the accuracy was ±0.003 at the same set point temperature as standardization and within -2° and +4°C of ambient. These salinity values were used to check, and when necessary calibrate, the CTD salinity profiles.
Continuous dissolved oxygen (O2) profiles were obtained with a SBE-43 Dissolved Oxygen Sensor coupled to the SBE-25 CTD. Discrete oxygen samples were collected in duplicate using glass-stoppered bottles and analyzed by Winkler titration (Strickland and Parsons, 1972, as modified by Aminot, 1983). The analytical precision for discrete oxygen analysis was ±3 mM, based on analysis of duplicate samples, with a detection limit of 5 mM. The in-situ oxygen values were used to check, and when necessary calibrate, the CTD oxygen profiles.
Continuous fluorescence profiles were obtained with a Sea Tech Fluorometer coupled to the SBE-25 CTD. Discrete chlorophyll samples were immediately filtered through 25 mm Whatman GF/F filters in triplicate and frozen. The chlorophyll-a determination followed Holm-Hansen et al. (1965), and the calculations were done as indicated in Lorenzen (1966). Among the modifications are the use of methanol instead of acetone as an extraction solvent due to its greater efficiency (Holm-Hansen and Riemann, 1978) and the use of a sonic dismembrator (Wright et al., 1997). The method applies to all ranges of chlorophyll-a concentration found in seawater. The method detection limit is 0.01 μg L-1 for natural waters (for a 0.5 L sample). Fluorescence profiles were calibrated with in-situ chlorophyll-a and it is presented in its native units of RFU (fluor_CTD) and also in micrograms/m^3 (fluor_chla).
BCO-DMO Processing Notes:
- added conventional header with dataset name, PI name, version date
- modified parameter names to conform with BCO-DMO naming conventions
- added latitude and longitude information from additional LatLon.csv file.
- reformatted the date from yyyymmdd to ISO convention yyyy-mm-dd
- additional information about the previous versions can be found at OCB DMO processing notes.
This document is created by info v 4.1f 5 Oct 2018 from the content of the BCO-DMO metadata database. 2019-10-21 22:15:13