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    Rates of primary and bacterial production measured in situ under ambient and elevated pCO2 (750 µatm) from the Hawaiian Ocean Time Series near Station ALOHA from 2010-2011.
    
  
  
    
    

Rates of primary and bacterial production measured in situ under ambient and elevated pCO2 (750 µatm) from the Hawaiian Ocean Time Series near Station ALOHA from 2010-2011.

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/726341
Data Type: Cruise Results
Version: 1
Version Date: 2018-03-15

Project
» Oceanic diazotroph community structure and activities in a high carbon dioxide world (DIAZOTROPHS-CO2)

Program
» Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Church, Matthew J.University of HawaiiPrincipal Investigator
Letelier, RicardoOregon State University (OSU-CEOAS)Co-Principal Investigator
Viviani, DonnUniversity of HawaiiContact
Switzer, MeganWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Abstract
Rates of primary and bacterial production measured in situ under ambient and elevated pCO2 (750 µatm) from the Hawaiian Ocean Time Series near Station ALOHA from 2010-2011.


Coverage

Spatial Extent: N:25.4193 E:-160.7528 S:22.7485 W:-167.9648
Temporal Extent: 2010-08-21 - 2011-03-16

Dataset Description

This data was used in Viviani et al (2018). For related research of experimental work done on some of the same cruises and drawn from some of the same experiments but reporting different parameters, see Bottjer et al (2014).


Acquisition Description

Rates of primary production were assessed using the 14C-bicarbonate incorporation technique. Rates of bacterial production were assessed using incorporation of 3H-leucine. Whole seawater samples from six discrete depths (5, 25, 45, 75, 100, and 125 m) were collected into duplicate acid-washed 20 L carboys. Control carboys were unamended; 43 mL of 1.0 N HCl and 4 mmol sodium bicarbonate were added to a treatment carboy at each depth, to increase the pCO2 to ~750 µatm, while minimizing changes to total alkalinity. Water from control and treatment carboys were then each subsampled into acid washed 500 mL polycarbonate bottles, with triplicate bottles per depth and treatment. To each bottle, was then added ~1.85 MBq 14C-bicarbonate. Water from each depth and treatment was also added to acid-cleaned 40 mL polycarbonate centrifuge tubes, each tube was then inoculated with 3H-leucine to a final concentration of 20 nmol L-1. For each depth and treatment, there was a dark (in a opaque cloth bag) and light incubation. Time zero blanks were immediately subsampled from each tube, by aliquoting 1.5 mL of seawater into 2 mL microcentrifuge tubes each containing 100 µL of 100% TCA. Following addition of radioactive substrates, the bottles and tubes were affixed to a free-drifting array and incubated in situ at the original depth of sample collection from dawn to dusk.

Upon recovery of the array, the total radioactivity added to each primary production sample bottle was determined by subsampling 250 µL aliquots of seawater into scintillation vials containing 500 µL of β-phenylethylamine. 400 mL from each 500 mL sample bottle was filtered at low vacuum (<50 mm Hg) onto 25 mm diameter, 10 µm porosity polycarbonate membrane filters. The filtrate was collected and filtered onto 25 mm diameter 2 µm porosity polycarbonate membrane filters. 100 mL of that filtrate was then filtered onto 25 mm diameter 0.2 µm porosity polycarbonate membrane filters.  Filters were stored frozen in 20 mL scintillation vials until analysis. Analysis consisted of acidification via addition of 1 mL of 2 N hydrochloric acid, and passively venting at least 24 hours in a fume hood to remove all inorganic 14C. Addition of 10 mL Ultima Gold LLT liquid scintillation cocktail and counting on a Perkin Elmer 2600 liquid scintillation counter completed the primary production analysis.

Upon recovery of the array, triplicate 1.5 mL subsamples were removed from each polycarbonate tube for bacterial production rate measurements, and aliquoted into 2 mL microcentrifuge tubes containing 100 µL of 100% TCA. The microcentrifuge tubes were frozen (-20°C) for subsequent processing, following the procedures described in Smith and Azam 1992.

Samples for the determination of dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity were collected from each carboy and analyzed according to the protocols of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (Dore et al. 2009; Winn et al. 1998). DIC and TA samples were collected into precombusted 300 mL borosilicate bottles. Care was taken to avoid introduction of air bubbles into samples during filling; bottles were allowed to overflow three times during filling. Once filled, samples were immediately fixed with 100 µL of a saturated solution of mercuric chloride; bottles were capped with a grease seal, and stored in the dark for later analysis.

Samples for measurement of fluorometric chlorophyll a were collected according to the protocols of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series; analysis was performed following Letelier et al. (1996).


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Related Publications

Böttjer, D., Karl, D. M., Letelier, R. M., Viviani, D. A., & Church, M. J. (2014). Experimental assessment of diazotroph responses to elevated seawaterpCO2in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 28(6), 601–616. doi:10.1002/2013gb004690 https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GB004690
Related Research
Dore, J. E., Lukas, R., Sadler, D. W., Church, M. J., & Karl, D. M. (2009). Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(30), 12235–12240. doi:10.1073/pnas.0906044106
Methods
Letelier, R. ., Dore, J. E., Winn, C. D., & Karl, D. M. (1996). Seasonal and interannual variations in photosynthetic carbon assimilation at Station. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 43(2-3), 467–490. doi:10.1016/0967-0645(96)00006-9
Methods
Smith, D.C. and F. Azam (1992). A simple, economical method for measuring bacterial protein synthesis rates in seawater using 3H-leucine. Marine Microbial Food Webs 6:107-114 http://www.gso.uri.edu/dcsmith/page3/page19/assets/smithazam92.PDF
Methods
Viviani, D. A., Böttjer, D., Letelier, R. M., & Church, M. J. (2018). The influence of abrupt increases in seawater pCO2 on plankton productivity in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean. PLOS ONE, 13(4), e0193405. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0193405
Results
Winn, C. D., Li, Y.-H., Mackenzie, F. T., & Karl, D. M. (1998). Rising surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series site. Marine Chemistry, 60(1-2), 33–47. doi:10.1016/s0304-4203(97)00085-6 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4203(97)00085-6
Methods

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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
cruise_idcruise identification number no units
stationstation number text
castcast number unitless
datedate sampling began; format: YYYYMMDD unitless
yearyear of sample; format: YYYY unitless
monthmonth of sample; format: MM unitless
dayday of sample; format: DD unitless
timetime of sampling; format: hhmm unitless
latlatitude decimal degrees
lonlongitude decimal degrees
depthdepth from which sample was collected meters
PP_mean_10ummean 14C-Primary Production rate from 10 micron filters micromol C/liter/day
PP_std_dev_10umstandard deviation of 14C-Primary Production rate from 10 micron filters micromol C/liter/day
PP_num_obs_10umnumber of samples used in calculation of PP rate mean and standard deviation unitless
PP_mean_750uatm_pco2_10ummean 14C-Primary Production rate from 10 micron filters incubated at 750 microatm pCO2 micromol C/liter/day
PP_std_dev_750uatm_pco2_10umstandard deviation of 14C-Primary Production rate from 10 micron filters incubated at 750 microatm pCO2 micromol C/liter/day
PP_num_obs_750uatm_pco2_10umnumber of samples used in calculation of PP rate mean and standard deviation unitless
PP_mean_2ummean 14C-Primary Production rate from 2 micron filters micromol C/liter/day
PP_std_dev_2umstandard deviation of 14C-Primary Production rate from 2 micron filters micromol C/liter/day
PP_num_obs_2umnumber of samples used in calculation of PP rate mean and standard deviation unitless
PP_mean_750uatm_pco2_2ummean 14C-Primary Production rate from 2 micron filters incubated at 750 microatm pCO2 micromol C/liter/day
PP_std_dev_750uatm_pco2_2umstandard deviation of 14C-Primary Production rate from 2 micron filters incubated at 750 microatm pCO2 micromol C/liter/day
PP_num_obs_750uatm_pco2_2umnumber of samples used in calculation of PP rate mean and standard deviation unitless
PP_mean_0pt2ummean 14C-Primary Production rate from 0.2 micron filters micromol C/liter/day
PP_std_dev_0pt2umstandard deviation of 14C-Primary Production rate from 0.2 micron filters micromol C/liter/day
PP_num_obs_0pt2umnumber of samples used in calculation of PP rate mean and standard deviation unitless
PP_mean_750uatm_pco2_0pt2ummean 14C-Primary Production rate from 0.2 micron filters incubated at 750 microatm pCO2 micromol C/liter/day
PP_std_dev_750uatm_pco2_0pt2umstandard deviation of 14C-Primary Production rate from 0.2 micron filters incubated at 750 microatm pCO2 micromol C/liter/day
PP_num_obs_750uatm_pco2_0pt2umnumber of samples used in calculation of PP rate mean and standard deviation unitless
dissolved_inorganic_carbondissolved inorganic carbon of seawater used for PP and 3H_leuc incubations at ambient conditions micromol/kilogram seawater
dissolved_inorganic_carbon_750uatm_pco2dissolved inorganic carbon of seawater used for PP and 3H_leuc incubations at 750 microatm pCO2 micromol/kilogram seawater
total_alkalinitytotal alkalinity of seawater used for PP and 3H_leuc incubations at ambient conditions microequivalents/kilogram seawater
total_alkalinity_750uatm_pco2total alkalinity of seawater used for PP and 3H_leuc incubations at 750 microatm pCO2 microequivalents/kilogram seawater
chlorophyllchlorophyll a micrograms/liter
leuc_3H_light_incorp_meanmean 3H-Leucine (light incubated) incorporation rates picomol leucine/liter/hour
leuc_3H_light_incorp_std_devstandard deviation 3H-Leucine (light incubated) incorporation rates picomol leucine/liter/hour
leuc_3H_light_num_obsnumber of samples used in calculation of 3H-leucine incorporation rate mean and standard deviation unitless
leuc_3H_light_incorp_mean_750uatm_pco2mean 3H-Leucine (light incubated) incorporation rates at 750 microatm pCO2 picomol leucine/liter/hour
leuc_3H_light_incorp_std_dev_750uatm_pco2standard deviation 3H-Leucine (light incubated) incorporation rates at 750 microatm pCO2 picomol leucine/liter/hour
leuc_3H_light_num_obs_750uatm_pco2number of samples used in calculation of 3H-leucine incorporation rate mean and standard deviation unitless
leuc_3H_dark_incorp_meanMean 3H-Leucine (dark incubated) incorporation rates picomol leucine/liter/hour
leuc_3H_dark_incorp_std_devstandard deviation 3H-Leucine (dark incubated) incorporation rates picomol leucine/liter/hour
leuc_3H_dark_num_obsnumber of samples used in calculation of 3H-leucine incorporation rate mean and standard deviation unitless
leuc_3H_dark_incorp_mean_750uatm_pco2mean 3H-Leucine (dark incubated) incorporation rates at 750 microatm pCO2 picomol leucine/liter/hour
leuc_3H_dark_incorp_std_dev_750uatm_pco2standard deviation 3H-Leucine dark incubated) incorporation rates at 750 microatm pCO2 picomol leucine/liter/hour
leuc_3H_dark_num_obs_750uatm_pco2number of samples used in calculation of 3H-leucine incorporation rate mean and standard deviation unitless


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
CTD profiler
Generic Instrument Description
The Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) unit is an integrated instrument package designed to measure the conductivity, temperature, and pressure (depth) of the water column. The instrument is lowered via cable through the water column and permits scientists observe the physical properties in real time via a conducting cable connecting the CTD to a deck unit and computer on the ship. The CTD is often configured with additional optional sensors including fluorometers, transmissometers and/or radiometers. It is often combined with a Rosette of water sampling bottles (e.g. Niskin, GO-FLO) for collecting discrete water samples during the cast. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Perkin Elmer 2600 liquid scintillation counter
Generic Instrument Name
Liquid Scintillation Counter
Generic Instrument Description
Liquid scintillation counting is an analytical technique which is defined by the incorporation of the radiolabeled analyte into uniform distribution with a liquid chemical medium capable of converting the kinetic energy of nuclear emissions into light energy. Although the liquid scintillation counter is a sophisticated laboratory counting system used the quantify the activity of particulate emitting (ß and a) radioactive samples, it can also detect the auger electrons emitted from 51Cr and 125I samples.


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Deployments

KM1110

Website
Platform
R/V Kilo Moana
Report
Start Date
2011-03-12
End Date
2011-03-23

KM1016

Website
Platform
R/V Kilo Moana
Report
Start Date
2010-08-20
End Date
2010-08-30
Description
Cruise information and original data are available from the NSF R2R data catalog.


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Project Information

Oceanic diazotroph community structure and activities in a high carbon dioxide world (DIAZOTROPHS-CO2)


The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) is the largest ocean ecosystem on Earth, playing a prominent role in global carbon cycling and forming an important reservoir of marine biodiversity. Nitrogen (N2) fixing bacteria (termed diazotrophs) provide a major source of new nitrogen to the oligotrophic waters of the NPSG, thereby exerting direct control on the carbon cycle. Oceanic uptake of CO2 causes long-term changes in the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the seawater of this ecosystem. Therefore, understanding how carbon system perturbations may influence ocean biogeochemistry is an important and timely undertaking.

In this project, the investigators will examine how natural assemblages of N2 fixing microorganisms respond to perturbations in seawater carbon chemistry. Laboratory and field-based experiments will be placed in the context of monthly time series measurements on the activities and abundances of N2 fixing microorganism abundances. Together, the project will provide insight into the dependence of N2 fixing microorganism physiology on variations in CO2. The broad objectives of the research are: (1) Quantify the responses and consequences of changes in seawater pCO2 on the growth and community structure of naturally-occurring assemblages of ocean diazotrophs; (2) Identify why and how changes in seawater pCO2 influence the growth and carbon acquisition strategies of two model marine diazotrophs (Trichodesmium and Crocosphaera); and (3) Quantify temporal variability in diazotroph community structure and activities at Station ALOHA.

This is a Collaborative Research award.



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Program Information

Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)


Coverage: Global


The Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program focuses on the ocean's role as a component of the global Earth system, bringing together research in geochemistry, ocean physics, and ecology that inform on and advance our understanding of ocean biogeochemistry. The overall program goals are to promote, plan, and coordinate collaborative, multidisciplinary research opportunities within the U.S. research community and with international partners. Important OCB-related activities currently include: the Ocean Carbon and Climate Change (OCCC) and the North American Carbon Program (NACP); U.S. contributions to IMBER, SOLAS, CARBOOCEAN; and numerous U.S. single-investigator and medium-size research projects funded by U.S. federal agencies including NASA, NOAA, and NSF.

The scientific mission of OCB is to study the evolving role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle, in the face of environmental variability and change through studies of marine biogeochemical cycles and associated ecosystems.

The overarching OCB science themes include improved understanding and prediction of: 1) oceanic uptake and release of atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases and 2) environmental sensitivities of biogeochemical cycles, marine ecosystems, and interactions between the two.

The OCB Research Priorities (updated January 2012) include: ocean acidification; terrestrial/coastal carbon fluxes and exchanges; climate sensitivities of and change in ecosystem structure and associated impacts on biogeochemical cycles; mesopelagic ecological and biogeochemical interactions; benthic-pelagic feedbacks on biogeochemical cycles; ocean carbon uptake and storage; and expanding low-oxygen conditions in the coastal and open oceans.



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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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This document is created by info v 4.1f 5 Oct 2018 from the content of the BCO-DMO metadata database.    2021-04-10  16:16:14