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    Dissolved Inorganic Carbon measured in situ over depth in the kelp forest (36° 37.3’ N, 121° 54.1’ W) recorded in July 2018.

Dissolved Inorganic Carbon measured in situ over depth in the kelp forest (36° 37.3’ N, 121° 54.1’ W) recorded in July 2018.

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/826200
Data Type: Other Field Results
Version: 1
Version Date: 2020-10-07

» Collaborative Research: RUI: Building a mechanistic understanding of water column chemistry alteration by kelp forests: emerging contributions of foundation species (Kelp forest biogeochemistry)
Nickols, Kerry J.California State University Northridge (CSU-Northridge)Principal Investigator, Project Coordinator
Dunbar, Robert B.Stanford UniversityCo-Principal Investigator
Hirsh, HeidiStanford UniversityScientist, Contact
Monismith, Stephen G.Stanford UniversityScientist
Mucciarone, DavidStanford UniversityScientist
Takeshita, YuichiroMonterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI)Scientist
Traiger, SarahUnited States Geological Survey (USGS)Scientist
Soenen, KarenWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager

Dissolved Inorganic Carbon measured in situ over depth in the kelp forest (36° 37.3’ N, 121° 54.1’ W) recorded in July 2018.


Spatial Extent: Lat:36.62167 Lon:-121.90167
Temporal Extent: 2018-07-11 - 2018-07-20

Dataset Description

These data are published in Hirsh et al., see related publications section.

Acquisition Description

Continuous flow pumping experiments were conducted inside the kelp forest from a vessel within 15-m of the kelp mooring to obtain high temporal and vertical resolution biogeochemical data. Two experiments were conducted (July 11-13 and July 18-20, 2018) that overlapped with the kelp mooring pH timeseries data. Seawater was pumped from five depths spanning the water column using five sections of equal-length polypropylene tubing (3/8” ID, 1/2” OD) deployed over the side of a moored vessel. The depths presented here include the surface (valve #5), 6 mab (2-5 mbs, valve #3), and 1 mab (7-10 mbs, valve #1). A custom auto sampling manifold introduced water from each of the 5 tubes to a continuous flow system at 5-minute intervals, allowing the full suite of depths to be sampled every 25 minutes for the duration of each experiment (similar to Koweek et al., 2015a; Koweek et al., 2015b; Teneva et al., 2013). Seawater was drawn into the continuous flow system from each depth by a peristaltic pump operating at 2L/min.

Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) samples were automatically drawn every 5 minutes and analyzed using a custom-built sample acidification and delivery system coupled to a Li-COR 7000 infrared gas analyzer as described in Long et al. (2011). DIC was calibrated every hour using certified reference materials (CRM), Batch 169 (Dickson, 2010). Instrumental precision, based on 102 CRM analyses, was ± 5.7 μmol kg-1.

Processing Description

DIC samples were drawn from whichever depth was being actively pumped. The samples were later paired to the
appropriate depth by matching DIC sampling time to the valve control record of which depth was being pumped. Data processing was completed in Matlab.

BCO-DMO Processing notes:

  • Converted Timestamp to ISO format, and timezone from Pacific Standard Time (PST) to UTC

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Related Publications

Dickson, A. (2010). Standards for Ocean Measurements. Oceanography, 23(3), 34–47. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2010.22 https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2010.22
Dickson, A.G., Sabine, C.L. and Christian, J.R. (Eds.) 2007. Guide to Best Practices for Ocean CO2 Measurements. PICES Special Publication 3, 191 pp https://isbnsearch.org/isbn/1-897176-07-4
Hirsh, H., Nickols, K., Takeshita, Y., Traiger, S., Monismith, S. G., Mucciarone, D. A., & Dunbar, R. B. Drivers of biogeochemical variability in a central California kelp forest and implications for local amelioration of ocean acidification. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.
Koweek, D. A., Dunbar, R. B., Monismith, S. G., Mucciarone, D. A., Woodson, C. B., & Samuel, L. (2015). High-resolution physical and biogeochemical variability from a shallow back reef on Ofu, American Samoa: an end-member perspective. Coral Reefs, 34(3), 979–991. doi:10.1007/s00338-015-1308-9
Koweek, D., Dunbar, R. B., Rogers, J. S., Williams, G. J., Price, N., Mucciarone, D., & Teneva, L. (2014). Environmental and ecological controls of coral community metabolism on Palmyra Atoll. Coral Reefs, 34(1), 339–351. doi:10.1007/s00338-014-1217-3
Long, M. C., Dunbar, R. B., Tortell, P. D., Smith, W. O., Mucciarone, D. A., & DiTullio, G. R. (2011). Vertical structure, seasonal drawdown, and net community production in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(C10). doi:10.1029/2009jc005954 https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005954
Teneva, L., Dunbar, R. B., Mucciarone, D. A., Dunckley, J. F., & Koseff, J. R. (2013). High-resolution carbon budgets on a Palau back-reef modulated by interactions between hydrodynamics and reef metabolism. Limnology and Oceanography, 58(5), 1851–1870. doi:10.4319/lo.2013.58.5.1851

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Related Datasets

Hirsh, H., Nickols, K. J., Takeshita, Y., Traiger, S., Monismith, S. G., Mucciarone, D., Dunbar, R. B. (2020) pH measured in situ over depth in the kelp forest (36° 37.3’ N, 121° 54.1’ W) recorded in July 2018. Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). (Version 1) Version Date 2020-10-07 doi:10.26008/1912/bco-dmo.826162.1 [view at BCO-DMO]
Relationship Description: Part of the same continuous flow pumping experiments.

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Timestamp_DIClocal date and time, PST unitless
DIC_1mabDIC measured 1 meter above the bottom micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
DIC_6mabDIC measured 6 meters above the bottom micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
DIC_surfaceDIC measured at the surface micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
ISO_DateTime_UTCSampling date and time in ISO format (yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ssZ) in UTC (coordinated Universal Time) unitless

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Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Li-COR 7000 infrared gas analyzer
Generic Instrument Name
LI-COR LI-7000 Gas Analyzer
Dataset-specific Description
Li-COR 7000 infrared gas analyzer
Generic Instrument Description
The LI-7000 CO2/H2O Gas Analyzer is a high performance, dual cell, differential gas analyzer. It was designed to expand on the capabilities of the LI-6262 CO2/ H2O Gas Analyzer. A dichroic beam splitter at the end of the optical path provides radiation to two separate detectors, one filtered to detect radiation absorption of CO2 and the other to detect absorption by H2O. The two separate detectors measure infrared absorption by CO2 and H2O in the same gas stream. The LI-7000 CO2/ H2O Gas Analyzer is a differential analyzer, in which a known concentration (which can be zero) gas is put in the reference cell, and an unknown gas is put in the sample cell.

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Mooring - Hopkins Marine Station
Start Date
End Date
This deployment represents the mooring itself and data that has been acquired at this site or in close proximity of it, and are considered samples "inside a kelp forest": ADCP data:

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Project Information

Collaborative Research: RUI: Building a mechanistic understanding of water column chemistry alteration by kelp forests: emerging contributions of foundation species (Kelp forest biogeochemistry)

Coverage: Central California 36.6 N 122 W

NSF abstract:

Kelp forest ecosystems are of ecological and economic importance globally and provide habitat for a diversity of fish, invertebrates, and other algal species. In addition, they may also modify the chemistry of surrounding waters. Uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) by giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, may play a role in ameliorating the effects of increasing ocean acidity on nearshore marine communities driven by rising atmospheric CO2. Predicting the capacity for kelp forests to alter seawater chemistry requires understanding of the oceanographic and biological mechanisms that drive variability in seawater chemistry. The project will identify specific conditions that could lead to decreases in seawater CO2 by studying 4 sites within the southern Monterey Bay in Central California. An interdisciplinary team will examine variations in ocean chemistry in the context of the oceanographic and ecological characteristics of kelp forest habitats. This project will support an early career researcher, as well as train and support a postdoctoral researcher, PhD student, thesis master's student, and up to six undergraduate students. The PIs will actively recruit students from underrepresented groups to participate in this project through Stanford University's Summer Research in Geosciences and Engineering (SURGE) program and the Society for Advancement of Hispanics/Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS). In addition, the PIs and students will actively engage with the management community (Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary and California Department of Fish and Wildlife) to advance products based on project data that will assist the development of management strategies for kelp forest habitats in a changing ocean.

This project builds upon an extensive preliminary data set and will link kelp forest community attributes and hydrodynamic properties to kelp forest biogeochemistry (including the carbon system and dissolved oxygen) to understand mechanistically how giant kelp modifies surrounding waters and affects water chemistry using unique high-resolution measurement capabilities that have provided important insights in coral reef biogeochemistry. The project sites are characterized by different oceanographic settings and kelp forest characteristics that will allow examination of relationships between kelp forest inhabitants and water column chemistry. Continuous measurements of water column velocity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and photosynthetically active radiation will be augmented by twice-weekly measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, and nutrients as well as periods of high frequency sampling of all carbonate system parameters. Quantifying vertical gradients in carbonate system chemistry within kelp forests will lead to understanding of its dependence on seawater residence time and water column stratification. Additional biological sampling of kelp, benthic communities, and phytoplankton will be used to 1) determine contributions of understory algae and calcifying species to bottom water chemistry, 2) determine contributions of kelp canopy growth and phytoplankton to surface water chemistry and 3) quantify the spatial extent of surface chemistry alteration by kelp forests. The physical, biological, and chemical data collected across multiple forests will allow development of a statistical model for predictions of kelp forest carbonate system chemistry alteration in different locations and under future climate scenarios. Threshold values of oceanographic conditions and kelp forest characteristics that lead to alteration of water column chemistry will be identified for use by managers in mitigation strategies such as targeted protection or restoration.

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Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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This document is created by info v 4.1f 5 Oct 2018 from the content of the BCO-DMO metadata database.    2020-12-05  00:39:14