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    Processed CTD data from R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1301 in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean in 2013 (POWOW project)
    
  
  
    
    

Processed CTD data from R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1301 in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean in 2013 (POWOW project)

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/514261
Version: 01 May 2014
Version Date: 2014-05-01

Project
» Seasonal and decadal changes in temperature drive Prochlorococcus ecotype distribution patterns (POWOW)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Johnson, Zackary I.Duke UniversityPrincipal Investigator, Contact
Zinser, ErikUniversity of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK)Co-Principal Investigator
Rauch, ShannonWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager


Dataset Description

Binned-profile CTD data from cruise KM1301 during Jan-Feb 2013. Data were processed with Sea-Bird SBE Data Processing Version 7.21F using windows and filters as described below.


Acquisition Description

Note: some cast numbers may be missing/skipped for a given station because of aborted casts.

Header information from Sea-Bird SBE 9 Data File:
Software Version Seasave V 7.21k
Temperature SN = 1489; Conductivity SN = 2541
Number of Bytes Per Scan = 41; Number of Voltage Words = 4
Number of Scans Averaged by the Deck Unit = 1
SBE 11plus V 5.2
number of scans to average = 1; pressure baud rate = 9600; NMEA baud rate = 4800
GPIB address = 1
advance primary conductivity  0.073 seconds
advance secondary conductivity  0.073 seconds
autorun on power up is disabled
units = specified
name 0 = scan: Scan Count
name 1 = prDM: Pressure, Digiquartz [db]
name 2 = t068C: Temperature [ITS-68, deg C]
name 3 = c0S/m: Conductivity [S/m]
name 4 = sbeox0Mm/Kg: Oxygen, SBE 43 [umol/Kg]
name 5 = flECO-AFL: Fluorescence, WET Labs ECO-AFL/FL [mg/m^3]
name 6 = CStarAt0: Beam Attenuation, WET Labs C-Star [1/m]
name 7 = nbf: Bottles Fired
name 8 = sal00: Salinity, Practical [PSU]
name 9 = sigma-é00: Density [sigma-theta, Kg/m^3]
name 10 = potemp090C: Potential Temperature [ITS-90, deg C]
name 11 = scan: Scan Count
name 12 = t168C: Temperature, 2 [ITS-68, deg C]
name 13 = c1S/m: Conductivity, 2 [S/m]
name 14 = sbeox1Mm/Kg: Oxygen, SBE 43, 2 [umol/Kg]
name 15 = flSP: Fluorescence, Seapoint
name 16 = sal11: Salinity, Practical, 2 [PSU]
name 17 = sigma-é11: Density, 2 [sigma-theta, Kg/m^3]
name 18 = potemp168C: Potential Temperature, 2 [ITS-68, deg C]
name 19 = par: PAR/Irradiance, Biospherical/Licor
name 20 = nbin: number of scans per bin
name 21 = flag: flag
span 0 =       8155,      61297       
span 1 =      3.000,   1001.000       
span 2 =     3.9947,    24.5393       
span 3 =   3.258152,   5.301801       
span 4 =     32.921,    203.892       
span 5 =    -0.3678,    29.4585       
span 6 =    -0.0004,     0.0615       
span 7 =          0,          1       
span 8 =    34.1145,    35.3254       
span 9 =    23.7269,    27.4057       
span 10 =     3.9180,    24.5324      
span 11 =       8155,      61297      
span 12 =     3.9968,    24.5402      
span 13 =   3.258299,   5.302291      
span 14 =     32.807,    199.209      
span 15 = 2.6004e-02, 6.0084e-01      
span 16 =    34.1147,    35.3282      
span 17 =    23.7291,    27.4056      
span 18 =     3.9212,    24.5391      
span 19 = 2.2309e-01, 1.3212e+03      
span 20 =          8,         44      
span 21 = 0.0000e+00, 0.0000e+00      
interval = decibars: 1; bad_flag = -9.990e-29
Sensors count="13"

Sensor Channel 1: Frequency 0, Temperature; SensorID = 55; Serial Number: 1489
Calibration Date: 01-Nov-12
UseG_J: 1
A: 0.00000000e+000; B: 0.00000000e+000; C: 0.00000000e+000; D: 0.00000000e+000; F0_Old: 0.000
G: 4.78324023e-003
H: 6.52533514e-004
I: 2.17843448e-005
J: 1.47229280e-006
F0: 1000.000
Slope: 1.00000000; Offset: 0.0000

Sensor Channel 2: Frequency 1, Conductivity; Sensor ID = 3; Serial Number: 2541
Calibration Date: 12-July-12
UseG_J: 1
<!-- Cell const and series R are applicable only for wide range sensors. -->
Series R: 0.0000
Cell Const: 2000.0000
Conductivity Type: 0
Coefficients equation = 0
  A: 0.00000000e+000; B:0.00000000e+000; C:0.00000000e+000; D: 0.00000000e+000; M: 0.0
  CPcor: -9.57000000e-008
Coefficients equation = 1
  G: -1.01533397e+001
  H: 1.50197700e+000
  I: -1.68517545e-003
  J:2.11806502e-004
  CPcor: -9.57000000e-008
  CTcor: 3.2500e-006
        <!-- WBOTC not applicable unless ConductivityType = 1. -->
        <WBOTC>0.00000000e+000</WBOTC>
Slope: 1.00000000; Offset: 0.00000

Sensor Channel 3: Frequency 2, Pressure, Digiquartz with TC; Sensor ID = 45; Serial Number: 1070
Calibration Date: 07-Dec-11
C1: -4.259281e+004; C2: 4.585050e-001; C3: 1.440400e-002
D1: 2.872100e-002; D2: 0.000000e+000
T1: 3.000390e+001; T2: -1.213343e-004; T3: 4.096600e-006; T4: 4.368270e-009
Slope: 1.00000000; offset: 0.00000
T5: 0.000000e+000
AD590M: 1.281600e-002
AD590B: -9.252515e+000

Sensor Channel 4: Frequency 3, Temperature, 2; Sensor ID = 55; Serial Number: 2013
Calibration Date: 26-July-12
UseG_J: 1
A: 0.00000000e+000; B: 0.00000000e+000; C: 0.00000000e+000; D: 0.00000000e+000; F0_Old: 0.000
G: 4.16201100e-003
H: 6.36753116e-004
I: 2.22826192e-005
J:2.41315906e-006
F0: 1000.000
Slope: 1.00000000; offset: 0.0000

Sensor Channel 5: Frequency 4, Conductivity, 2; Sensor ID = 3; Serial Number: 1579
Calibration Date: 12-July-12
UseG_J: 1
<!-- Cell const and series R are applicable only for wide range sensors. -->
SeriesR: 0.0000
CellConst: 2000.0000
ConductivityType: 0
Coefficients equation = 0
  A: 0.00000000e+000; B: 0.00000000e+000; C: 0.00000000e+000; D: 0.00000000e+000; M: 0.0
  CPcor: -9.57000000e-008
Coefficients equation = 1
  G: -4.10010617e+000
  H: 5.24030594e-001
  I: 4.21273111e-004
  J:7.66491934e-006
  CPcor: -9.57000000e-008
  CTcor: 3.2500e-006
        <!-- WBOTC not applicable unless ConductivityType = 1. -->
        <WBOTC>0.00000000e+000</WBOTC>
Slope: 1.00000000; Offset: 0.00000

Sensor Channel 6: A/D voltage 0, Oxygen, SBE 43; Sensor ID = 38; Serial Number: 2345
Calibration Date: 13-Jun-12
Use2007Equation: 1
CalibrationCoefficients equation = 0
  <!-- Coefficients for Owens-Millard equation. -->
  Boc: 0.0000
  Soc: 0.0000e+000
  offset: 0.0000
  Pcor: 0.00e+000
  Tcor: 0.0000
  Tau: 0.0
CalibrationCoefficients equation = 1
  <!-- Coefficients for Sea-Bird equation - SBE calibration in 2007 and later. -->
  Soc: 4.1910e-001
  offset: -0.4822
  A: -2.5448e-003; B: 1.3378e-004; C: -2.1406e-006
  D0: 2.5826e+000; D1: 1.92630e-004; D2: -4.64800e-002
  E: 3.6000e-002
  Tau20: 1.8700
  H1: -3.3000e-002; H2: 5.0000e+003; H3: 1.4500e+003

Sensor Channel 7: A/D voltage 1, Oxygen, SBE 43, 2; Sensor ID = 38; Serial Number: 0310
Calibration Date: 24-July-12
Use2007Equation: 1
CalibrationCoefficients equation = 0
<!-- Coefficients for Owens-Millard equation. -->
  Boc: 0.0000
  Soc: 0.0000e+000
  offset: 0.0000
  Pcor: 0.00e+000
  Tcor: 0.0000
  Tau: 0.0
CalibrationCoefficients equation = 1
<!-- Coefficients for Sea-Bird equation - SBE calibration in 2007 and later. -->
  Soc: 4.7000e-001
  offset: -0.4584
  A: -2.7338e-003
  B: 9.9678e-005
  C: -1.7029e-006
  D0: 2.5826e+000; D1: 1.92634e-004; D2: -4.64803e-002
  E: 3.6000e-002
  Tau20: 1.3500
  H1: -3.3000e-002; H2: 5.0000e+003; H3: 1.4500e+003

Sensor Channel 8: A/D voltage 2, PAR/Irradiance, Biospherical/Licor; Sensor ID = 42; Serial Number: 70378
Calibration Date: 26-oct-12
M: 1.00000000; B: 0.00000000
CalibrationConstant: 4545454545.45454500
Multiplier: 1.00000000
offset: 0.00000000

Sensor Channel 9: A/D voltage 3, Fluorometer, Seapoint; Sensor ID = 11; Serial Number: 2487
Calibration Date: 28-apr-11
<!-- The following is an array index, not the actual gain setting. -->
  GainSetting: 0
  offset: 0.000

Sensor Channel 10: A/D voltage 4, Fluorometer, WET Labs ECO-AFL/FL; Sensor ID = 20; Serial Number: 2087
Calibration Date: 26-nov-12
ScaleFactor: 2.50000000e+001
<!-- Dark output -->
  Vblank: 0.0360

Sensor Channel 11: A/D voltage 5, Free

Sensor Channel 12: A/D voltage 6, Transmissometer, WET Labs C-Star; Sensor ID = 71; Serial Number: 1432
Calibration Date: 7-aug-12
M: 21.2811
B: 0.0000
PathLength: 0.250

Sensor Channel 13: A/D voltage 7, Free

---------------------------


Processing Description

The processed data files submitted to BCO-DMO include 2 plots for each cast: plot 1 contains temperature, oxygen, PAR, and density vs. pressure; plot 2 contains fluorescence, salinity, beam attenuation, and density vs. pressure. Plots have been compiled into a single PDF file: POWOW2 CTD Plots (44.3 MB PDF)

BCO-DMO obtained the processed .cnv files (binned profiles) and replaced values of '-9.990e-29' with 'nd' to indicate 'no data'. Parameter names were modified to conform with BCO-DMO convention. month_utc, day_utc, year, time_start, lat_start, lon_start, and depth_w were taken from the file named "POWOW2-ctdfilelist.txt" included in the original data submission.
---------------------------

Processing description from Sea-Bird SBE 9 Data Files:
(from station 1, cast 1 data file)
datcnv_date = Feb 15 2013 15:15:49, 7.22.4 [datcnv_vars = 20]
datcnv_in = C:\Users\zij\Desktop\2013-POWOW2-HNL2HNL\data\CTD\km1301_s01_c01_ctd001.hex C:\Users\zij\Desktop\2013-POWOW2-HNL2HNL\data\CTD\km1301_s01_c01_ctd001.XMLCON
datcnv_skipover = 0
datcnv_ox_hysteresis_correction = yes
datcnv_ox_tau_correction = yes
wfilter_date = Feb 15 2013 15:17:36, 7.22.4
wfilter_in = C:\Users\zij\Desktop\2013-POWOW2-HNL2HNL\data\CTD\km1301_s01_c01_ctd001.cnv
wfilter_excl_bad_scans = yes
wfilter_action prDM = gaussian, 5, 1, 0
wfilter_action t068C = median, 21
wfilter_action c0S/m = median, 21
wfilter_action sbeox0Mm/Kg = gaussian, 5, 1, 0
wfilter_action flECO-AFL = gaussian, 21, 1, 0
wfilter_action CStarAt0 = gaussian, 5, 1, 0
wfilter_action sal00 = gaussian, 5, 1, 0
wfilter_action sigma-é00 = gaussian, 5, 1, 0
wfilter_action potemp090C = median, 21
wfilter_action t168C = median, 21
wfilter_action c1S/m = median, 21
wfilter_action sbeox1Mm/Kg = gaussian, 5, 1, 0
wfilter_action flSP = gaussian, 21, 1, 0
wfilter_action sal11 = gaussian, 5, 1, 0
wfilter_action sigma-é11 = gaussian, 5, 1, 0
wfilter_action potemp168C = median, 21
wfilter_action par = gaussian, 21, 1, 0
wildedit_date = Feb 15 2013 15:18:47, 7.22.4
wildedit_in = C:\Users\zij\Desktop\2013-POWOW2-HNL2HNL\data\CTD\km1301_s01_c01_ctd001.cnv
wildedit_pass1_nstd = 2.0
wildedit_pass2_nstd = 20.0
wildedit_pass2_mindelta = 0.000e+000
wildedit_npoint = 100
wildedit_vars = prDM t068C c0S/m sbeox0Mm/Kg flECO-AFL CStarAt0 sal00 sigma-é00 potemp090C t168C c1S/m sbeox1Mm/Kg flSP sal11 sigma-é11 potemp168C par
wildedit_excl_bad_scans = yes
loopedit_date = Feb 15 2013 15:19:46, 7.22.4
loopedit_in = C:\Users\zij\Desktop\2013-POWOW2-HNL2HNL\data\CTD\km1301_s01_c01_ctd001.cnv
loopedit_minVelocity = 0.250                                                                                            
loopedit_surfaceSoak: minDepth = 5.0, maxDepth = 40, useDeckPress = 1                                                   
loopedit_excl_bad_scans = yes
binavg_date = Feb 15 2013 15:21:11, 7.22.4
binavg_in = C:\Users\zij\Desktop\2013-POWOW2-HNL2HNL\data\CTD\km1301_s01_c01_ctd001.cnv
binavg_bintype = decibars
binavg_binsize = 1
binavg_excl_bad_scans = yes
binavg_skipover = 0
binavg_surface_bin = no, min = 0.000, max = 0.000, value = 0.000
file_type = ascii

---------------------------


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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
CTD_numCTD number (sequential for the cruise). unitless
stationStation number (sequential based on location). unitless
castCast number (sequential; starts at 01 for each new location/station number). Some cast numbers may be missing/skipped for a given station because of aborted casts. unitless
month_utc2-digit month of year, UTC. mm (01 to 12)
day_utc2-digit day of month, UTC. dd (01 to 31)
year4-digit year. YYYY
time_startTime (UTC) at start of CTD cast, 24-hour clock. HHMM
lat_startLatitude at start of CTD cast. Positive = North. decimal degrees
lon_startLongitude at start of CTD cast. Positive = East. decimal degrees
depth_wDepth of the water (bottom depth). meters
ISO_DateTime_UTCDate/Time (UTC) ISO8601 formatted. T indicates start of time string; Z indicates UTC. YYYY-mm-ddTHH:MM:SS.ssZ
pressPressure, Digiquartz. decibars
tempTemperature from primary sensor, ITS-68, measured in degrees Celsius. degrees C
temp2Temperature from secondary sensor, ITS-68, measured in degrees Celsius. degrees C
condConductivity from primary sensor measured in Siemens per meter. S/m
cond2Conductivity from secondary sensor measured in Siemens per meter. S/m
O2_umol_kgOxygen measured by primary SBE 43 sensor in micromoles per kilogram. umol/kg
O2_umol_kg2Oxygen measured by secondary SBE 43 sensor in micromoles per kilogram. umol/kg
fluorFluorescence measured by WET Labs ECO-AFL/FL in milligrams per cubic meter. mg/m^3
fluor_sptFluorescence, Seapoint. ?
salSalinity from primary sensor in practical salinity units. PSU
sal2Salinity from secondary sensor in practical salinity units. PSU
sigma_0Sigma theta density from primary sensor in kilograms per cubic meter. kg/m^3
sigma_0_2Sigma theta density from secondary sensor in kilograms per cubic meter. kg/m^3
potempPotential temperature from primary sensor, ITS-90, measured in degrees Celsius. degrees C
potemp2Potential temperature from secondary sensor, ITS-90, measured in degrees Celsius. degrees C
beam_cBeam attenuation measured by the WET Labs C-Star transmissometer. 1/m
parPAR/Irradiance, Biospherical/Licor ?
nbinNumber of scans per bin. unitless


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
LI-COR Biospherical PAR
Generic Instrument Name
LI-COR Biospherical PAR Sensor
Generic Instrument Description
The LI-COR Biospherical PAR Sensor is used to measure Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) in the water column. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known.

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
CTD SBE 9
Generic Instrument Name
CTD Sea-Bird 9
Generic Instrument Description
The Sea-Bird SBE 9 is a type of CTD instrument package. The SBE 9 is the Underwater Unit and is most often combined with the SBE 11 Deck Unit (for real-time readout using conductive wire) when deployed from a research vessel. The combination of the SBE 9 and SBE 11 is called a SBE 911. The SBE 9 uses Sea-Bird's standard modular temperature and conductivity sensors (SBE 3 and SBE 4). The SBE 9 CTD can be configured with auxiliary sensors to measure other parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, fluorometer, altimeter, etc.). Note that in most cases, it is more accurate to specify SBE 911 than SBE 9 since it is likely a SBE 11 deck unit was used. more information from Sea-Bird Electronics

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
SBE-43 DO
Generic Instrument Name
Sea-Bird SBE 43 Dissolved Oxygen Sensor
Generic Instrument Description
The Sea-Bird SBE 43 dissolved oxygen sensor is a redesign of the Clark polarographic membrane type of dissolved oxygen sensors. more information from Sea-Bird Electronics

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
ECO AFL/FL
Generic Instrument Name
Wet Labs ECO-AFL/FL Fluorometer
Generic Instrument Description
The Environmental Characterization Optics (ECO) series of single channel fluorometers delivers both high resolution and wide ranges across the entire line of parameters using 14 bit digital processing. The ECO series excels in biological monitoring and dye trace studies. The potted optics block results in long term stability of the instrument and the optional anti-biofouling technology delivers truly long term field measurements. more information from Wet Labs

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
WL CSTAR Trans
Generic Instrument Name
Wet Labs CSTAR Transmissometer
Generic Instrument Description
A highly integrated opto-electronic design to provide a low cost, compact solution for underwater measurements of beam transmittance. The instrument is capable of either free space measurements, or through the use of an optical flow tube, flow-through sampling with a pump. It can be used in profiling, moored, or underway applications. more information from Wet Labs


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Deployments

KM1301

Website
Platform
R/V Kilo Moana
Report
Start Date
2013-01-10
End Date
2013-02-08
Description
From the cruise report: The POWOW#2 cruise was the second in a series of cruises to study the influence of temperature and other environmental variables on Prochlorococcus, its viruses and other members of the microbial community. The primary goal of this cruise was to measure the abundance, diversity and activity of Prochlorococcus and associated bacterial and viral communities across temperature (and other environmental) gradients to understand how climate change may impact ocean ecology and biogeochemistry. Cruise information and original data are available from the NSF R2R data catalog.


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Project Information

Seasonal and decadal changes in temperature drive Prochlorococcus ecotype distribution patterns (POWOW)


Coverage: Eastern North Pacific Ocean


Project also known as 'Prochlorococcus Of Warming Ocean Waters' (POWOW). The two numerically-dominant ecotypes of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus partition the surface ocean niche latitudinally, with ecotype eMIT9312 dominant in the 30 degree N to 30 degree S region and eMED4 dominant at higher latitudes. These ecotypes may account for 25-50% of primary production in open ocean ecosystems, but this percentage is dependent on which ecotype dominates. The relative abundance of the two ecotypes follows a log-linear relationship with temperature, with the transition from eMIT9312 to eMED4 occurring at approx. 18 degrees C. From these descriptive data, it has been hypothesized that temperature is the primary driver of relative abundance. Their contribution to net primary production, however, appears to be independent of temperature, suggesting temperature regulates ecotype dominance through photosynthesis-independent mechanisms. To test these hypotheses, the PIs are undertaking a series of field and lab studies to investigate the effect of temperature change on the distribution of these ecotypes. Two cruises in the North Pacific will trace the transitions from eMIT9312- to eMED4-dominated regions, with one cruise during the winter and the other during summer. They have hypothesized that the ratio of ecotype abundance will move latitudinally with the seasonal shift in temperature gradient: migration of the 18 degrees C isotherm northward in the summer will be matched by a similar migration of the 1:1 ecotype transition point. Multiple crossings of the 18 degrees C isotherm are proposed, and the summer cruise will also follow the isotherm to the Western US coast to gain insight on physical and geochemical influences. Environmental variables such as nutrient concentrations, light/mixing depths, and virus /grazing based mortality, which may impinge on the relationship between temperature and ecotype ratio, will be assessed through a series of multivariate analyses of the collected suite of physical, chemical and biological data. Seasonal comparisons will be complemented with on-deck incubations and lab competition assays (using existing and new isolates) that will establish, for the first time, how fitness coefficients of these ecotypes relate to temperature. As latitudinal shifts in temperature gradient and migration of ecotypes during seasonal warming likely share common features with high latitude warming as a consequence of climate change, the investigator's analyses will contribute important biological parameters (e.g., abundances, production rates, temperature change coefficients) for modeling biological and biogeochemical responses to climate change. This research will be integrated with that of committed collaborators, generating data sufficient for ecosystem-scale characterizations of the contributions of temperature (relative to other forcing factors) in constraining the range and seasonal migration of these numerically dominant marine phototrophs. Publications produced as result of this research: Rowe, J.M., DeBruyn, J.M., Poorvin, L., LeCleir, G.R., Johnson, Z.I., Zinser, E.R., and Wilhelm, S.W. 2012. Viral and bacterial abundance and production in the Western Pacific Ocean and the relation to other oceanic realms. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 72, p. 359. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01223.x Morris, J.J., Lenski, R.E. and E.R. Zinser. 2012. The Black Queen Hypothesis: Evolution of Dependencies through Adaptive Gene Loss. mBio, 3, p. e00036-12. DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00036-12 Morris, J.J., Johnson, Z.I., Szul, M.J., Keller, M., and Zinser, E.R. 2011. Dependence of the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus on hydrogen peroxide scavenging microbes for growth at the ocean's surface. PLoS One, 6(2), p. 16805. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0016805 Ringuet, S., Sassano, L., and Johnson, Z.I. 2011. A suite of microplate reader-based colorimetric methods to quantify ammonium, nitrate, orthophosphate and silicate concentrations for aquatic nutrient monitoring. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. DOI:10.1039/C0EM00290A Ritchie, A.E. and Johnson, Z.I. 2012. Abundance and genetic diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria of coastal regions of the Pacific Ocean. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78, p. 2858. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.06268-11


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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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This document is created by info v 4.1f 5 Oct 2018 from the content of the BCO-DMO metadata database.    2019-09-15  15:18:32