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Data server object:  fossil_seal_skel_measurements




  
    Skeletal measurements from fossil seals from the western Ross Sea, Antarctica
    
  
  
    
    

Skeletal measurements from fossil seals from the western Ross Sea, Antarctica

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/732661
Data Type: Other Field Results
Version: 29 March 2018
Version Date: 2018-03-29

Project
» Collaborative Research: Exploring the Vulnerability of Southern Ocean Pinnipeds to Climate Change - An Integrated Approach (Southern Ocean Pinnipeds)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Hall, BrendaUniversity of MainePrincipal Investigator
Koch, Paul L.University of California-Santa Cruz (UC Santa Cruz)Principal Investigator, Contact
Costa, Daniel P.University of California-Santa Cruz (UC Santa Cruz)Co-Principal Investigator
Hoelzel, A. RusDurham UniversityCo-Principal Investigator
Rauch, ShannonWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager


Coverage

Spatial Extent: N:-76.67755 E:164.72143 S:-78.9066 W:160.58937
Temporal Extent: 2005 - 2013

Dataset Description

These data are published and discussed in:
Brault, E. (2017). An Examination of the Ecological and Oceanographic Effects of Mid-to-Late Holocene Climate Changes on the Ross Sea Ecosystem. UC Santa Cruz. ProQuest ID: Brault_ucsc_0036E_11435. Merritt ID: ark:/13030/m5dg1n5d. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/99s5j3fk


Acquisition Description

Sample collection:
Fossil seal samples were collected during the austral summers of 2005/06, 2006/07, 2012/13, and 2013/14 in Antarctica in the Dry Valleys and along the Victoria Land Coast (especially Inexpressible Island on Terra Nova Bay), Antarctica. Since this region experiences unusually dry and cold conditions, carcasses and bones are well-preserved, potentially for several thousand years, and therefore have unchanged isotopic compositions in most cases. The sampled species were crabeater, Weddell, leopard, and southern elephant seals. Latitude and longitude of each specimen was recorded and several photographs were taken of each specimen. Bone and carcass weathering states were determined. Several samples were gathered from the specimens. Most commonly, bone was collected, followed by skin and fur; nails, teeth, and whiskers were not frequently available for sampling, but taken when possible. Samples were collected with ethanol-cleaned tools, stored in Whirl-Pak bags, and refrigerated (~4 °C) when we returned from the field.

Species identification and radiocarbon analysis:
When possible, species identification of each specimen was conducted in the field via examination of teeth or bones with features unique to the four pinniped species. Additionally, the team at the University of Durham in the United Kingdom extracted and analyzed DNA from many specimens (described in Fossil Seal Bulk Isotopes 14C) to confirm or establish the species identification. Full details on radiocarbon dating are supplied in that sheet as well.

Most skeletal measurement were made in the field with a steel tape measure or calipers (for tooth row length). In many cases, parts of bones were obscured by tissue, so measurements are approximate. Refer to the Bone Measurment Guide (PDF).


Processing Description

BCO-DMO Processing:
-modifed parameter names (replaced spaces with underscores)
-changed date format from mm/dd/yyyy to yyyymmdd.


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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
Sample_IDSample identification code unitless
Collection_dateDate of collection formatted as yyyymmdd unitless
General_areaGeneral location of sampling unitless
Sampling_regionMore specific sampling location unitless
Brief_descriptionAttributes of the specimen unitless
Taxon_finalFinal determination of the species: Cr = crabeater seal; Lp = leopard seal; SES = southern elephant seal; Wd = Weddell seal; ? = tentative identification unitless
Age_classAge class of the specimen (adult, sub-adult, pup, unknown) unitless
Body_lengthstraight line length from nose to tips of hind flippers meters
Comments_body_lengthcomments related to body length unitless
Left_skull_width_mastoid_M1half width across skull at the mastoid (Pg. 1, Bone Measurment Guide (PDF).) millimeters
Right_skull_width_mastoid_M1half width across skull at the mastoid (Pg. 1, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Comments_skull_width_mastoid_M1comments related to skull width at the mastoid unitless
Left_skull_width_zygomatic_M2half width across skull at the zygomatic (Pg. 1, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Right_skull_width_zygomatic_M2half width across skull at the zygomatic ((Pg. 1, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Comments_skull_width_zygomatic_M2comments related to skull width at the zygomatic unitless
Skull_length_occiput_premax_M3length of skull from occipital condyles to proximal premaxilla (Pg. 1, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Comments_skull_length_occiput_premax_M3comments related to skull length unitless
Left_upper_tooth_row_length_M4length of upper tooth row from P1 to M1 alveolus) (Pg. 1, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Right_upper_tooth_row_length_M4length of upper tooth row from P1 to M1 alveolus) (Pg. 1, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Comments_upper_tooth_row_length_M4comments related to upper tooth row length unitless
Left_mandible_length_condyle_incisor_M1length of mandible from mandibular condyle to proximal most bone under incisors (Pg. 1, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Right_mandible_length_condyle_incisor_M1length of mandible from mandibular condyle to proximal most bone under incisors (Pg. 1, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Comments_mandible_length_condyle_incisor_M1comments related to madible length unitless
Left_lower_tooth_row_length_M7length of lower tooth row from P1 to M1 alveolus) (Pg. 1, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Right_lower_tooth_row_length_M7length of lower tooth row from P1 to M1 alveolus) (Pg. 1, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Comments_lower_tooth_row_length_M7comments related to lower tooth row length unitless
Atlas_greatest_breadth_M1maximum distance across atlas (Pg. 2, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Comments_atlas_greatest_breadth_M1comments related to maxium distance across atlas unitless
Atlas_height_M2maximum dorso-ventral length (Pg. 2, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Comments_atlas_height_M2comments related to atlas height unitless
Axis_greatest_length_of_arch_M1maximum length of arch, including processes (Pg. 2, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Comments_axis_greatest_length_of_arch_M1comments related to axis greatest length unitless
Axis_height_M2axis height millimeters
Comments_axis_height_M2comments related to axis height unitless
Left_scapula_greatest_length_M1from medial edge of the blade to glenoid tubercule (Pg. 3, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Right_scapula_greatest_length_M1from medial edge of the blade to glenoid tubercule (Pg. 3, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Comments_scapula_greatest_length_M1comments related to scapula greatest length unitless
Left_scapula_collum_minimum_width_M3minimum distance across the neck of the scapula (Pg. 3, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Right_scapula_collum_minimum_width_M3minimum distance across the neck of the scapula (Pg. 3, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Comments_scapula_collum_minimum_width_M3comments related to scapula collum unitless
Left_humerus_length_M1maximum length of humerus (with or without epiphyses) (Pg. 4, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Right_humerus_length_M1maximum length of humerus (with or without epiphyses) (Pg. 4, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Fusion_state_humerus_length_M1fusion state of epiphyses: proximal/distal. 0 = epiphysis lost or not visible; 1 = unfused (epiphysis off or loose); 2 = partially fused (epiphysis attached, but suture conspicuous); 3 = fully fused (episphysis strongly attached, suture obscured). unitless
Comments_humerus_length_M1comments related to humerus length unitless
Left_radius_length_M1maximum length of radius (with or without epiphyses) (Pg. 4, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Right_radius_length_M1maximum length of radius (with or without epiphyses) (Pg. 4, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Fusion_state_radius_length_M1fusion state of epiphyses: proximal/distal. 0 = epiphysis lost or not visible; 1 = unfused (epiphysis off or loose); 2 = partially fused (epiphysis attached, but suture conspicuous); 3 = fully fused (episphysis strongly attached, suture obscured). unitless
Comments_radius_length_M1comments related to radius length unitless
Left_ulna_length_M1maximum length of ulna (with or without epiphyses) (Pg. 5, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Right_ulna_length_M1maximum length of ulna (with or without epiphyses) (Pg. 5, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Fusion_state_ulna_length_M1fusion state of epiphyses: proximal/distal. 0 = epiphysis lost or not visible; 1 = unfused (epiphysis off or loose); 2 = partially fused (epiphysis attached, but suture conspicuous); 3 = fully fused (episphysis strongly attached, suture obscured). unitless
Comments_ulna_length_M1comments related to ulna length unitless
Left_pelvis_length_M1maximum length of pelvis (with or without epiphyses) (Pg. 5, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Right_pelvis_length_M1maximum length of pelvis (with or without epiphyses) (Pg. 5, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Fusion_state_pelvis_length_M1fusion state of epiphyses: proximal/distal. 0 = epiphysis lost or not visible; 1 = unfused (epiphysis off or loose); 2 = partially fused (epiphysis attached, but suture conspicuous); 3 = fully fused (episphysis strongly attached, suture obscured). unitless
Comments_pelvis_length_M1comments related to pelvis length unitless
Left_crista_ilium_breadth_M2length of crista illium (with or without epiphyses) (Pg. 5, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Right_crista_ilium_breadth_M2length of crista illium (with or without epiphyses) (Pg. 5, Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Fusion_state_crista_ilium_breadth_M2fusion state of epiphyses: proximal/distal. 0 = epiphysis lost or not visible; 1 = unfused (epiphysis off or loose); 2 = partially fused (epiphysis attached, but suture conspicuous); 3 = fully fused (episphysis strongly attached, suture obscured). unitless
Comments_crista_ilium_breadth_M2comments related to crista illium unitless
Left_femur_corpus_smallest_length_M9smallest length of femur corpus (epiphyses not included in measurement) (Pg. 6. Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Right_femur_corpus_smallest_length_M9smallest length of femur corpus (epiphyses not included in measurement) (Pg. 6. Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Fusion_state_femur_corpus_smallest_length_M9fusion state of epiphyses: proximal/distal. 0 = epiphysis lost or not visible; 1 = unfused (epiphysis off or loose); 2 = partially fused (epiphysis attached, but suture conspicuous); 3 = fully fused (episphysis strongly attached, suture obscured). unitless
Comments_femur_corpus_smallest_length_M9comments related to femur corpus unitless
Left_tibia_fibula_length_M3maximum length of tibia and/or fibula (with or without epiphyses) (Pg. 6. Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Right_tibia_fibula_length_M3maximum length of tibia and/or fibula (with or without epiphyses) (Pg. 6. Bone Measurement Guide) millimeters
Fusion_state_tibia_fibula_length_M3fusion state of epiphyses: proximal/distal. 0 = epiphysis lost or not visible; 1 = unfused (epiphysis off or loose); 2 = partially fused (epiphysis attached, but suture conspicuous); 3 = fully fused (episphysis strongly attached, suture obscured). unitless
Comments_tibia_fibula_length_M3comments related to tibia and/or fibula length unitless
Overall_commentsoverall comments unitless


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
steel tape measure or calipers
Generic Instrument Name
Measuring Tape
Dataset-specific Description
Most skeletal measurement were made in the field with a steel tape measure or calipers (for tooth row length). In many cases, parts of bones were obscured by tissue, so measurements are approximate.
Generic Instrument Description
A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible ruler. It consists of a ribbon of cloth, plastic, fibre glass, or metal strip with linear-measurement markings. It is a common measuring tool.


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Project Information

Collaborative Research: Exploring the Vulnerability of Southern Ocean Pinnipeds to Climate Change - An Integrated Approach (Southern Ocean Pinnipeds)

Coverage: McMurdo Dry Valleys Region; Royal Society Range, Victoria Land Coast , Antarctic Peninsula, Amundsen Sea, Ross Sea


NSF abstract: Building on previously funded NSF research, the use of paleobiological and paleogenetic data from mummified elephant seal carcasses found along the Dry Valleys and Victoria Land Coast in areas that today are too cold to support seal colonies (Mirougina leonina; southern elephant seals; SES) supports the former existence of these seals in this region. The occurrence and then subsequent disappearance of these SES colonies is consistent with major shifts in the Holocene climate to much colder conditions at the last ~1000 years BCE). Further analysis of the preserved remains of three other abundant pinnipeds ? crabeater (Lobodon carciophagus), Weddell (Leptonychotes weddelli) and leopard (Hydrurga leptonyx) will be studied to track changes in their population size (revealed by DNA analysis) and their diet (studied via stable isotope analysis). Combined with known differences in life history, preferred ice habitat and ecosystem sensitivity among these species, this paleoclimate proxy data will be used to assess their exposure and sensitivity to climate change in the Ross Sea region during the past ~1-2,000 years


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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Office of Polar Programs (formerly NSF PLR) (NSF OPP)
NSF Office of Polar Programs (formerly NSF PLR) (NSF OPP)

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This document is created by info v 4.1f 5 Oct 2018 from the content of the BCO-DMO metadata database.    2020-04-04  06:57:33