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    Bulk Carbon and Nitrogen isotopes from sperm whale dentin from the UC-Santa Cruz labs of P. Koch and M. McCarthy (Sperm Whale SI Ratios project)
    
  
  
    
    

Bulk Carbon and Nitrogen isotopes from sperm whale dentin from the UC-Santa Cruz labs of P. Koch and M. McCarthy (Sperm Whale SI Ratios project)

Website: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/652931
Data Type: Other Field Results
Version:
Version Date: 2016-08-01

Project
» A novel approach for evaluating temporal and spatial changes in trophic structure of the mesopelagic eastern Pacific (Sperm Whale SI Ratios)
ContributorsAffiliationRole
Koch, Paul L.University of California-Santa Cruz (UC Santa Cruz)Principal Investigator
McCarthy, Matthew D.University of California-Santa Cruz (UC Santa Cruz)Co-Principal Investigator
Brault, Emily K.University of California-Santa Cruz (UC Santa Cruz)Student
Copley, NancyWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI BCO-DMO)BCO-DMO Data Manager


Dataset Description

Bulk Carbon and Nitrogen isotope values of raw and decalcified dentin from a sperm whale tooth were measured to determine the effects of decalcification and the accuracy of untreated dentin results.The sperm whale tooth came from the California Current System.

Related Reference:
All sampling and analytical information are supplied in: Brault EK, Koch PK, Gier E, Ruiz-Cooley RI, Zupcic J, Gilbert KN, McCarthy MD (2014) Effects of decalcification on bulk and compound-specific nitrogen and carbon isotope analyses of dentin. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 28: 2744-2752.

Related Datasets:
Brault 2014: Compound-specific Carbon in sperm whale dentin
Brault 2014: Compound-specific Nitrogen in sperm whale dentin


Acquisition Description

Materials and methods for analysis are described in detail in the Brault et al (2014). Briefly, a homogenized sample of sperm whale dentin was split into 20 sub-samples. Ten received "Conventional" extractraction (decalcification with 0.5N HCl, rinsing with water to neutrality, freeze-drying) and ten were not treated ("Raw") before stable isotope and elemental analysis by with an elemental  analyzer coupled to a gas source, isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometer. Carbon isotope values are reference to V-PDB; nitrogen isotope values are referenced to AIR. Mass and drift corrections were performed by  analysis of gelatin standard replicates during each instrument session. Standard deviations for replicate analyses of gelatin were <0.1‰ for both δ13C and δ15N values. The standard deviations for molar C:N ratio was <0.01%. n.d., not determined.


Processing Description

BCO-DMO Processing:

- added conventional header with dataset name, PI name, version date, reference information
- renamed parameters to BCO-DMO standard


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Parameters

ParameterDescriptionUnits
sampleSample identification numer alphanumeric
methodConventional extraction: decalcification with 0.5N HCl; rinsing with water to neutrality; freeze-drying; "Raw": not treated unitless
d13Cdelta 13 C. Isotope values are reported in conventional d-notation relative to the international standard V-PDB. parts per thousand
d15Ndelta 15 N. Isotope values are reported in conventional d-notation relative to the international standard atmospheric N2. parts per thousand
molar_C_to_NMolar Carbon to Nitrogen ratio dimensionless (ratio)


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Instruments

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometer
Dataset-specific Description
Thermo Finnigan DeltaPlus XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany)
Generic Instrument Description
The Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometer is a particular type of mass spectrometer used to measure the relative abundance of isotopes in a given sample (e.g. VG Prism II Isotope Ratio Mass-Spectrometer).

Dataset-specific Instrument Name
Generic Instrument Name
Elemental Analyzer
Dataset-specific Description
These samples were analyzed for bulk delta-13C and delta-15N values in the Stable Isotope Lab at University of California at Santa Cruz on a EA 1108 elemental analyzer (Carlo Erba, Milan, Italy) coupled to a Thermo Finnigan DeltaPlus XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany).
Generic Instrument Description
Instruments that quantify carbon, nitrogen and sometimes other elements by combusting the sample at very high temperature and assaying the resulting gaseous oxides. Usually used for samples including organic material.


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Deployments

lab_UCSC_Koch

Website
Platform
UCSC
Start Date
2012-03-01
End Date
2016-03-01
Description
whale isoptope studies


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Project Information

A novel approach for evaluating temporal and spatial changes in trophic structure of the mesopelagic eastern Pacific (Sperm Whale SI Ratios)

Coverage: California Current, Eastern Tropical Pacific, and the Peru-Humboldt Current


Description from NSF award abstract:
Anthropogenic and natural climatic perturbations drive changes in population dynamics of species, the structure and function of food webs, and biogeochemical processes. The PIs propose a comparative analysis of three major ecosystems to investigate temporal change in the structure of mesopelagic food webs.

The PIs will investigate temporal changes in the structure of mesopelagic food webs in three major ecosystems: the California Current, Eastern Tropical Pacific, and the Peru-Humboldt Current over the past 50 years using a globally distributed apex predator as an indicator species. The predator is the sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus, and the PIs will use stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen as indicators of habitat and diet. Isotope values from bulk tissues of teeth and skin (C and N) as well as specific amino acids (N) will be used to address two primary objectives: (a) examine temporal patterns in the trophic position of sperm whales (as an indicator of changes in mesopelagic trophic structure) and baseline isotopic values (as indicators of nutrient cycling); and (b) use isotopic values, which vary among systems, to define the population structure of sperm whales from past and present times, and connectivity among populations.

This project will be conducted by researchers from academia and NOAA/NMFS with expertise in stable isotope analysis, trophic ecology, and ecosystem-based management of protected species. As such, it represents an opportunity for collaboration between scientists with complementary skills and from diverse institutions to compare structure and function of ecosystems across the eastern Pacific. Moreover, it represents a collaboration between academia and a federal agency with research and management responsibilities. The project will support a postdoctoral scholar (Iliana Ruiz-Cooley), a Ph.D. student, and undergraduate students to enhance their career and collaborative opportunities. The PIs anticipate that the results of their study will provide unique data to evaluate the effects of perturbations within and among mesopelagic ecosystems. This information may allow the scientific community to relate trends in climate to changes in trophic position of top predators and nutrient cycling, allowing more robust understanding of possible responses to future warming. Finally, as the first systematic applications of compound-specific stable isotope analysis to marine mammals, the project should be highly instructive for future evaluations of the feeding ecology, population structure and dynamics of endangered marine mammals. As such, this novel approach and unique historic perspective will be directly applicable for stock assessment and management.



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Funding

Funding SourceAward
NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE)

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This document is created by info v 4.1f 5 Oct 2018 from the content of the BCO-DMO metadata database.    2021-03-01  07:40:19